The pH Scale

What is the pH scale? The pOH scale measures hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration in a solution, inversely to the pH scale. Lower pOH values indicate higher alkalinity, while higher values suggest greater acidity. pH + pOH always equals 14 for neutral solutions at a specific temperature, aiding in acidity and basicity assessment. However, it is … Read more

Weighing of Solids and Liquids

Methods of Measuring Liquids Weighing Solids Weighing solids and liquids is a common practice in a variety of fields, including science, industry, and everyday life. One of the first techniques students should become familiar with in the laboratory is weighing substances to carry out chemical reactions with the required amounts. In addition, it is essential … Read more


What is filtration? Filtration it is the procedure by which separates a solid in suspension in a liquid. It is used to remove solid impurities or contaminants from a solution or to isolate an chemical solid. In the Chemistry Laboratory, there are two main types of filtration, gravity filtration and vacuum filtration or suction. There are … Read more

Electron Configuration

What is the Electron Configuration? The electron configuration is the summary of where the electrons are located around a nucleus. Each neutral atom has a number of electrons equal to its number of protons. Therefore, these electrons are located in orbitals in an arrangement around the nucleus. The notation indicates that indicates their energy and … Read more