Emde degradation

What is Emde degradation?

Emde degradation is a modification of the Hofmann degradation method for reductive cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond by treatment of an alcoholic or aqueous solution of a quaternary ammonium halide with sodium amalgam. Also used as a catalytic method with palladium and platinum catalysts. The method succeeds with ring compounds not degraded by the Hofmann procedure.

Emde degradation
Emde degradation

References

  • Emde, H. (1909), Spaltung quartärer Ammoniumsalze durch nascierenden Wasserstoff. [Cleavage of quaternary ammonium salts by nascent hydrogen.] Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 42: 2590-2594. https://doi.org/10.1002/cber.190904202169
  • Emde, H. (1912), Abbau des Chinolins und des Isochinolins durch Reduktion. Über Kohlenstoffdoppel- und Kohlenstoff-Stickstoff-Bindung. [Degradation of quinoline and isoquinoline by reduction. Via carbon double bond and carbon-nitrogen bond.] Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem., 391: 88-109. https://doi.org/10.1002/jlac.19123910107
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