Knorr pyrrole synthesis

What is Knorr pyrrole synthesis?

The Knorr pyrrole synthesis is a chemical reaction that involves the formation of pyrrole derivatives through the condensation of α-amino ketones, either directly or by generating them in situ from isonitrosoketones, with carbonyl compounds that contain active α-methylene groups.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis
Knorr pyrrole synthesis


  • Knorr, L. (1884), Synthese von Pyrrolderivaten. [Synthesis of pyrrole derivatives.] Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 17: 1635-1642.
  • Knorr, L. (1886), Synthetische Versuche mit dem Acetessigester. II. Mittheilung: Ueberführung des Diacetbernsteinsäureesters und des Acetessigesters in Pyrrolderivate. [Synthetic experiments with the acetoacetic ester. II: Conversion of the diacetate succinic acid ester and the acetoacetic acid ester into pyrrole derivatives.] Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem., 236: 290-332.
  • Knorr, L. and Lange, H. (1902), Ueber die Bildung von Pyrrolderivaten aus Isonitrosoketonen. [On the formation of pyrrole derivatives from isonitrosoketones.] Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges., 35: 2998-3008.