Staudinger reaction

What is Staudinger reaction?

The Staudinger reaction, also known as the Staudinger synthesis, is a chemical reaction used to synthesize azides from alkenes and aryl halides by way of a diazo intermediate. The reaction was developed by Hermann Staudinger in the 1920s and is named after him. It is an important method for the synthesis of azides, which are used as precursors to a wide range of compounds and materials..

Staudinger reaction
Staudinger reaction

The reaction mechanism of the Staudinger reaction involves the formation of a diazo intermediate, which is formed by the transfer of a diazonium group from an aryl diazonium salt to the alkene. The diazo intermediate then undergoes a cyclization reaction to form the azide product..

One of the main advantages of the Staudinger reaction is its compatibility with a wide range of functional groups, including alkyl, aryl, and vinyl groups. This makes it a useful method for synthesizing a wide range of azides and other compounds..

The Staudinger reaction is typically performed under mild reaction conditions, which makes it suitable for synthesizing sensitive and labile compounds. However, it can be prone to side reactions, such as the formation of diazo compounds other than the desired azides, which can reduce the yield and selectivity of the reaction..

There are several variations of the Staudinger reaction that have been developed to improve its efficiency and scope, including the use of different catalysts and the use of modified reaction conditions. For example, the use of a palladium catalyst has been shown to improve the yield and selectivity of the Staudinger reaction..


Staudinger reaction is a powerful tool for synthesizing azides and has numerous applications in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. It is an important method in organic chemistry and continues to be an area of active research and development..


  • Staudinger, H. and Meyer, J. (1919), Ueber neue organische Phosphorverbindungen II. Phosphazine. [On new organic phosphorus compounds II. Phosphazines.] Helvetica Chimica Acta, 2: 619-635.
  • Staudinger, H. and Meyer, J. (1919), Über neue organische Phosphorverbindungen III. Phosphinmethylenderivate und Phosphinimine. [On new organic phosphorus compounds III. phosphine methylene derivatives and phosphinimines.] Helvetica Chimica Acta, 2: 635-646.