Bismuth element periodic table

Bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a brittle, crystalline metal that is often used in alloys and medications.

Bismuth is a radioactive element, but its atoms are relatively stable and last for millions of years. This element has been known for centuries. Thus, the Incas of South America added it to weapons made of bronze alloy to harden them, while the ancient Egyptians used a bismuth mineral to make their cosmetics shine. However, until the mid-18th century it was confused with lead, tin and zinc. As a chemical element, bismuth was officially discovered in 1753 by the scientist Claude Geoffroy. The origin of the name comes from the German words weisse masse” meaning white mass.

It is the most diamagnetic element, meaning it is strongly repelled by magnetic fields. It is also one of the few elements that expands as it solidifies, which makes it useful in some manufacturing processes.

Pure bismuth forms an oxide in air that looks like colored crystals called hopper crystals. This element is very brittle and has few uses when not in compound form. Yellow bismuth pigments are used in paints and cosmetics, while various bismuth compounds are also used in medicines. An alloy of bismuth and tin is an ingredient in fire extinguishers. Bismuth is not toxic and is considered to be a non-toxic alternative to lead in some applications.

Bismuth element periodic table

Electron configuration

The electron configuration of an element describes the arrangement of electrons in the atoms of that element, and be used to predict its chemical properties and reactivity.

In the electron configuration notation, the letters "s", "p", "d", and "f" represent the different types of atomic orbitals, and the superscripts indicate the number of electrons in each orbital. The orbitals are filled in a specific order, starting with the lowest energy orbital and working up.

electron configuration of element Bi

Emission spectra

Each element in the periodic table presents its own unique emission spectra, which is determined by the energy levels of its electrons. When an electron in an atom is excited to a higher energy level, it can de-excite by emitting a photon of light with an energy equal to the difference between the two levels. This results in a characteristic emission line in the spectra (which corresponds to specific wavelengths of light). These spectra are usefull to identify the elements present in a sample.

emmision spectra of element Bi

Symmary of properties (Bi)

Atomic weight 208.98040(1)
Discoverer (year) Agricola, Georgius (~ 1400)
Natural form metallic solid (rhombohedron)
Electron configuration [Xe] 414 5d10 6s2 6p3
M.p. (ºC) 271
B.p. (ºC) 1560
Earth's crust abundance (ppm) 0.009
Isotope (abundance %) 209Bi (100)
Density (g/cm3) 9.75
vdW radius (pm) 207
Covalent radius (pm) 150
Electronegativity (Pauling) 2.02
Vaporisation enthalpy (Kj/mol) 151.00
Fusion enthalpy (kJ/mol) 11.30
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 at 0.12
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25 ºC and 1 at 0.080
Oxidation number +5, +3
Electronic affinity (eV) 0.94
1st Ionization energy (eV) 7.2855

Definition of terms in the previous table

  • Atomic weight: The average mass of an element's atoms, typically given in atomic mass units (amu).
  • Natural form: The most stable and abundant form of an element that occurs naturally in the environment.
  • Electron configuration: The arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule.
  • Melting point: The temperature at which a solid substance turns into a liquid.
  • Boiling point: The temperature at which a liquid substance turns into a gas.
  • Earth's crust abundance (ppm): The concentration of an element in the Earth's crust, typically given in parts per million (ppm).
  • Isotope (abundance %): A variant of an element that has the same number of protons in the nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. The abundance of an isotope is the percentage of the isotope in a sample of the element.
  • Density (g/cm3): The mass of a substance per unit volume.
  • vdW radius (pm): The radius of an atom or molecule as predicted by the van der Waals model, typically given in picometers (pm).
  • Covalent radius (pm): The distance from the center of an atom to the center of another atom with which it is bonded covalently, typically given in picometers (pm).
  • Electronegativity (Pauling): A measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond, based on the Pauling scale.
  • Vaporisation enthalpy (kJ/mol): The amount of energy required to convert a substance from a liquid to a gas at a constant temperature.
  • Fusion enthalpy (kJ/mol): The amount of energy required to convert a substance from a solid to a liquid at a constant temperature.
  • Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 at: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius at a constant pressure.
  • Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25 ºC and 1 at: The ability of a substance to conduct heat, typically given in watts per centimeter per kelvin.
  • Oxidation number: A positive or negative integer that represents the number of electrons that an atom has gained or lost in a chemical compound.
  • Electronic affinity: The energy change associated with adding an electron to a neutral atom to form a negative ion.
  • 1st Ionization energy: The energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from a neutral atom.

Back to the Periodic Table of the Elements.