What is filtration?
Filtration it is the procedure by which separates a solid in suspension in a liquid. It is used to remove solid impurities or contaminants from a solution or to isolate an chemical solid. In the Chemistry Laboratory, there are two main types of filtration, gravity filtration and vacuum filtration or suction.
There are several different types of filtration methods that can be used in the laboratory, including gravity filtration, vacuum filtration, and centrifugal filtration. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which method to use will depend on the specific requirements of the experiment and the properties of the sample being filtered.
All the above mentioned filtration methods present advantages and disadvantages. But are used depending on if we are interested in the sample is the filtering, or the solid. Filtering refers to the liquid that has passed through a filter paper.
Gravity filtration is a simple and straightforward method that relies on the force of gravity to separate solid particles from a liquid. It is typically performed using a filter funnel, a filter flask, and a filter paper. The sample is poured into the filter funnel, which is placed over the filter flask. The solid particles are retained on the filter paper, while the liquid passes through the filter paper and is collected in the filter flask. Gravity filtration is relatively slow and may not be suitable for separating very fine particles or for filtering large volumes of liquid. It is also prone to clogging or plugging, especially when filtering suspensions with high solid content.
Vacuum filtration is a faster method that uses a vacuum pump to create a suction force that accelerates the flow of liquid through the filter paper. It is typically performed using a filter flask, a vacuum pump, and a filter funnel with a stopcock. The sample is poured into the filter funnel, which is placed over the filter flask. The stopcock is opened to allow the vacuum pump to draw the liquid through the filter paper and into the filter flask. Vacuum filtration is faster than gravity filtration, especially for large volumes of liquid or suspensions with high solid content. It can also be used to filter very fine particles and allows for more control over the filtration process. However, it requires specialized equipment and can be more expensive and time-consuming to set up and operate compared to gravity filtration.
Centrifugal filtration is a method that uses a high-speed centrifuge to separate solid particles from a liquid. It is typically performed using a centrifuge tube, a centrifuge rotor, and a centrifuge machine. The sample is placed in the centrifuge tube, which is then loaded into the centrifuge rotor. The centrifuge machine spins the rotor at a high speed, causing the solid particles to settle to the bottom of the tube and the liquid to rise to the top. Centrifugal filtration is fast and efficient, especially for separating large volumes of liquid or suspensions with high solid content. However, it requires specialized equipment and may not be suitable for filtering very fine particles or for separating delicate or fragile compounds.
In conclusion, filtration is an important technique used in the laboratory to separate solid particles from a liquid or gas. Different methods of filtration, such as gravity filtration, vacuum filtration, and centrifugal filtration, have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which method to use will depend on the specific requirements of the experiment and the properties of the sample being filtered.
Gravity filtration it is typically used when we are interested in the filtering, while the vacuum filtration is used when we are interested in the solid.
- Gravity filtration is preferred when applying vacuum could carry small solid particles through the pores of the filter paper, producing potentially a filtering contaminated with the solid compound.
- Vacuum filtration is preferred when the gravity filtration is much less effective to remove the residual liquid of the solid on the filter paper.
- Isac-García, J.; Dobado, J. A.; Calvo-Flores, F. G.; and Martínez-García, H. (2015). Experimental Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN: 978-0-12-803893-2
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