Nickel

Nickel element periodic table

Nickel is named after Old Nick, a demonic spirit in the Christian tradition that was believed to live underground. In the 18th century, German miners mistook a poisonous nickel ore, now known as nickeline, for copper ore. When this ore failed to produce copper, they named it Kupfernickel, meaning “old Nick’s copper“. Nickel is also found in other minerals, such as garnierite and pentlandite. This element is one of the most useful metals, with several applications. Because pure nickel does not oxidize, it is used to coat objects to make them look like silver, a trick still used to make inexpensive ornamental objects. Nickel is also mixed with copper to make an alloy called cupronickel. This is used as a coating on propellers and other metal parts of ships, since the alloy does not corrode in seawater. The same alloy is used in most of the world’s silver-plated coins. Nickel is also used in electric guitar strings. Thus, it is added to chromium to make an alloy called nicromium. Wires made from this alloy conduct heat very well, so they are used in toasters.

Symmary of properties (Ni)

Atomic weight 58.6934(4)
Discoverer (year) Cronstedt, Alex Fredrik (1751)
Natural form metallic solid (face-centred cubic)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Melting Point (ºC) 1453
Boiling point (ºC) 2732
Abundance in earth's crust (ppm) 84
Isotope (abundance %) 58Ni (68.077), 60Ni (26.223), 61Ni (1.1399), 62Ni (3.6345), 64Ni (0.9255)
Density (g/cm3) 8.9
Van der Waals radius (pm) 197
Covalent radius (pm) 117
Electronegativity (Pauling) 1.9
Vaporization enthalpy (kJ/mol) 371.80
Enthalpy of fusion (kJ/mol) 17.48
Specific heat capacity (J/g·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm 0.44
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·K) at 25ºC and 1 atm 0.910
Oxidation state +3, +2
Electronic affinity (eV) 1.16
1st Ionization potential (eV) 7.6398

Back to the Periodic Table of the Elements.

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