Vitamin K

What is vitamin K? Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stable to air and moisture but decomposes in sunlight. Two vitamin K vitamers are found in nature: vitamin K1, or phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, or menaquinone, generated in tissues, and another called K3, or menadione, which is produced by certain bacteria. The systematic … Read more

Vitamin E

What is vitamin E? Vitamin E is a group of fat-soluble vitamers of which different tocopherols and tocotrienols are part, both with forms named α-, β-, γ-, and δ-, according to their common chromane ring chemical structure. The IUPAC systematic name for α-tocopherol is (2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol. For α-tocotrienol the name is ((2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trienyl]-3,4-dihydrochromen-6-ol Chemical structure All vitamin … Read more

Vitamin D

What is vitamin D? Vitamin D is made up of two fat-soluble compounds. These are vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, and vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol. Vitamin D is a unique substance, as it is produced in the body when the skin receives solar radiation. The IUPAC systematic name for vitamin D3 is (3S,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol and for vitamin … Read more

Vitamin B6

What is vitamin B6? Vitamin B6, called pyridoxine (because of its structural similarity to pyridine), is actually a group of three chemical compounds called pyridoxine (PN) (or pyridoxol), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM). They are part of the family of water-soluble B vitamins. The systematic name of the IUPAC for pyridoxine is 4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol, for pyridoxal … Read more


What is thiamine? Thiamine, or thiamin, or vitamin B1, is a member of the B vitamins. The systematic name of the IUPAC is 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium-5-yl]ethanol. Chemical structure Thiamine has the following general chemical formula C12H17N4OS⊕. ​ 3D Structure Functions Although the human body needs only a tiny amount of thiamine, it plays several key roles in … Read more


What is riboflavin? Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is part of the water-soluble B vitamin complex. The systematic name of the IUPAC is 7,8-Dimethyl-10-[(2S,3S,4R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl]benzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione. Chemical structure It has a general formula C17H20N4O6. It consists of a heterocyclic structure (benzene ring fused to pteridine with two carbonyl groups) called isoaloxazine and a substituent, ribitol (pentose), linked to … Read more

Pantothenic acid

What is pantothenic acid? Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5, or vitamin W, is a water-soluble vitamin of the B vitamins group, necessary for life. It was discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1931 as a cofactor for yeast growth. The systematic name of the IUPAC for vitamin B5 is 3-[(2R)-2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanamido]propanoic acid. Chemical structure Structurally, pantothenic acid … Read more


What is niacin? The generic term niacin or vitamin PP refers to nicotinic acid and its amide niacinamide, which are the two main forms of vitamin B3. A third form of niacin, inositol hexaniacinate, is gaining acceptance as a substitute for niacin. This is composed of one molecule of inositol (an “unofficial” B vitamin) and … Read more

Folic acid

What is folic acid? Folic acid, or vitamin B9 or folacin, is a water-soluble vitamin of the B vitamin family that stimulates the hematopoietic system (blood cell production). Chemical structure Its chemical formula is C19 H19 N7 O6, and its structure consists of three parts. A nitrogenous heterocyclic ring (pteridine) with two single substituents oxo … Read more


What is biotin? Biotin (vitamin B7, vitamin H, or coenzyme R), is a member of the B vitamin family. It is an enzyme cofactor present in small amounts in every living cell. The IUPAC systematic name is 5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl]pentanoic acid Chemical structure   3D Structure   Functions Its main functions in the body are to help … Read more