What is taxol? Taxol or paclitaxel (PTX) is a drug used in chemotherapy for the treatment of various types of cancer (ovarian, breast and lung). The mechanism of action of taxol is based on its ability to stabilize microtubules, which are structural components of the cell’s cytoskeleton. By stabilizing microtubules, taxol prevents their normal disassembly, … Read more

Sulfuric acid H2SO4

What is sulfuric acid? It is a mineral acid with the general formula H2SO4. In ancient times it was referred to as vitriol, vitriol oil, vitriolic acid and vitriol spirit. 3D Structure Physico-chemical properties It is a viscous, colorless, odorless liquid, soluble in water. It has a molecular mass of 98.079 g·mol-1. It has a … Read more

Sodium bicarbonate

What is sodium bicarbonate? Sodium bicarbonate, formula NaHCO3, is a white crystalline solid soluble in water. It is also known by other synonyms: sodium hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate of soda. It has a slightly alkaline taste similar to sodium carbonate, although less strong and more salty. Production of Sodium Bicarbonate It is found in nature … Read more


What is phenolphthalein? Phenolphthalein (molecular formula C20H14O4) is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions it remains colorless, but in the presence of basic solutions it takes on a pinkish color with a turning point between pH = 8.0 (colorless) to pH = 9.8 (magenta or pinkish). Its IUPAC name is 3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-benzofuran-1-(3H)-one. However, at extreme pH … Read more


What is oxytocin? Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide that has both a hormone and neuropeptide function. Structure Oxytocin is a peptide composed of nine amino acids and one non-peptidic substituent. The sequence is as follows: cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide Cys – Tyr – Ile – Gln – Asn – Cys – Pro – Leu – Gly – NH2 … Read more


What is limonene? Limonene is a natural product extracted from the peel oil of citrus fruits (lemon, orange, etc.). Its molecular formula is C10H16 and molecular mass is 136,238 g·mol−1. It is a colorless or pale yellow liquid. Its IUPAC name is 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene. It has the characteristic odor of oranges and lemons. It is an … Read more

Nitric acid HNO3

What is nitric acid? It is a mineral acid of general formula HNO3, which is also known as fuming acid. 3D Structure Physico-chemical properties Nitric acid HNO3, is a viscous, odorless, colorless liquid, in pure form, but brownish yellow in color, due to dissolved nitrogen oxide impurities. It releases yellow fumes (hence its name fuming … Read more


What is isopropanol? Isopropanol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called isopropyl alcohol or 2-propanol. It is a secondary alcohol with the following physicochemical properties: flammable, transparent and with a strong odor. Its chemical formula is CH3-CH(OH)-CH3, formed by the union of a hydroxyl group -OH with an isopropyl group. 3D Structure Isopropanol applications Isopropanol is used … Read more

Hydrochloric acid

What is hydrochloric acid? Hydrochloric acid is an inorganic mineral acid with the general formula HCl-H2O. It is the simplest chemical system consisting of chlorine and water. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water. This solution is composed of hydrogen chloride molecules, water, and ions such as the chloride anion Cl⊖ and … Read more

Hydrogen sulfide H2S

What is hydrogen sulfide? Hydrogen sulfide is an inorganic compound with the formula H2S composed of one sulfur and two hydrogen atoms. It is the analog of water but exchanges oxygen for sulfur. H2S is a gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs, and is present in nature in many volcanic fumes. However, this … Read more