Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein transformation

What is Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein transformation? The Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein reaction, discovered in 1895, involves the reciprocal conversion of carbohydrates to their isomers in an alkaline solution, with the help of an enediolic intermediate. The reaction is named after its discoverers, and is also known by other names such as the … Read more

Kuhn-Roth oxidation

What is Kuhn-Roth oxidation? The Kuhn-Roth reaction, developed in 1933, is a method used for quantifying the number of methyl groups attached to the carbon atom in an organic molecule. This involves the oxidation of the organic compound with chromic acid H2CrO4 and sulfuric acid H2SO4, followed by steam distillation to collect the acetic acid … Read more

Claisen-Schmidt condensation

What is Claisen-Schmidt condensation? The Claisen-Schmidt condensation is a reaction that was first reported by Claisen (University of Bonn) and Schmidt (ETH Zurich) in 1881. It involves the condensation of an aromatic aldehyde with an aliphatic aldehyde or ketone in the presence of a base or an acid to form an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde or ketone … Read more


What is actinometry? Light is a fundamental and ubiquitous form of energy in our world, and it plays a crucial role in many scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, and biology. However, measuring the intensity of light and its impact on chemical reactions can be challenging. This is where actinometry comes in.. Actinometry is a technique … Read more

Craig tube

What is a Craig tube? The Craig tube is a small-scale apparatus utilized in preparative and analytical chemistry for recrystallization of quantities up to 100 mg (microscale). It comprises two parts – a test tube resembling a test tube with rough ground glass in the neck and a plunger typically made of Teflon or glass. … Read more

Synthesis of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one (chalcone)

Objective To obtain chalcone using the Claisen-Schmidt condensation by condensing an aromatic aldehyde with a ketone in the presence of a base. Background The Claisen-Schmidt condensation is a type of aldol condensation that involves synthesizing α,β-unsaturated ketones by condensing a ketone with an aromatic aldehyde. This reaction is possible because the aromatic aldehyde lacks hydrogens in … Read more

Acetophenone oxime preparation

Objective to obtain and characterize an oxime (acetophenone oxime) by reacting acetophenone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium acetate and ethanol. Background Oximes are organic compounds that contain the functional group -C=N-OH. They are synthesized by the reaction of a carbonyl compound (>C=O) with hydroxylamine NH2OH or its derivatives. The resulting product is … Read more

Preparation of methyl diantilis from ethylvanillin using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) techniques

Objective To synthesize methyl diantilis using Merrifield, polymer-supported reagents from ethylvanillin. The use of polymer-supported reagents allows for efficient and convenient reactions with minimal by-products, which makes it an attractive option for organic synthesis. Background The preparation of methyl diantilis from ethylvanillin using Merrifield, polymer-supported reagents is a laboratory experiment that utilizes solid-phase peptide synthesis … Read more

Reduction of benzophenone into diphenylmethanol with NaBH4

Objective The goal of this experiment is the the reduction of the aromatic ketone benzophenone to diphenylmethanol (benzhydrol) using sodium borohydride, NaBH4, as a reducing agent. Background The reduction of carbonyl groups is a fundamental reaction in organic chemistry. One commonly used reducing agent for this purpose is sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which is a mild … Read more

Fun chemistry experiments

What is fun chemistry experiments? Chemistry is a fascinating subject that can provide some of the most exciting and fun experiments. Whether you are a student or simply an enthusiast, conducting chemistry experiments can be a thrilling and educational experience. Here are some fun chemistry experiments that can be easily performed at home or in … Read more