Zincke disulfide cleavage

What is Zincke disulfide cleavage? The first attempt at the reaction using diphenyl disulfide and bromine in the absence of a diluting solvent was made by Otto in 1868, which resulted in the formation of only 4-bromophenyl disulfide. The Zincke disulfide cleavage method, which involves the oxidation of corresponding disulfides with halogens, was first used … Read more

Zimmermann reaction

What is Zimmermann reaction? The Janovsky and Erb reaction between an enolate carbanion and m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) was first reported in 1886. The specific reaction between m-dinitrobenzene and 17-oxo-steroids (or 17-keto-steroids) in the presence of an alkali was applied to the field of ketosteroid analysis by Zimmermann. This reaction is commonly known as the Zimmermann reaction, … Read more

Ziegler-Natta polymerization

What is Ziegler-Natta polymerization? The Ziegler-Natta polymerization is a process that involves using a Lewis acid of an early transition metal, such as Ti, Zr, or V, to catalyze the polymerization of vinyl monomers in the presence of trialkylaluminum, resulting in the formation of stereoregulated or tactic polymers. This reaction was first reported by Ziegler … Read more

Ziegler-Hafner azulene synthesis

What is Ziegler-Hafner azulene synthesis? The Ziegler-Hafner azulene synthesis was first reported in 1955 by Ziegler and Hafner. This method is widely used for synthesizing azulene derivatives by condensing a cyclopentadienyl anion with the intermediate formed by nucleophilic addition of dimethylamine onto an activated pyrinium salt. The reaction is commonly known as the Ziegler-Hafner azulene … Read more

Ziegler alcohol synthesis

What is Ziegler alcohol synthesis? The Ziegler alcohol synthesis is an industrial method for producing higher and linear primary alcohols with an even number of carbon atoms. The process involves several steps, including the synthesis of triethylaluminum from aluminum, hydrogen, and ethylene, the chain growth reaction between triethylaluminum and ethylene, the oxidation of resulting trialkylaluminum … Read more

Zerewitinoff determination

What is Zerewitinoff determination? The Zerewitinoff determination is a method to quantitatively determine the active hydrogens in a chemical substance by adding methylmagnesium iodide in pentyl ether to the solution of substrate and measuring the volume of gaseous methane evolved. The reaction was first reported by Chugaev and subsequently extended by Zerewitinoff. The method is … Read more

Zemplén deacetylation

What is Zemplén deacetylation? The Zemplén deacetylation is a reaction that was first reported by Zemplén and Kuntz in 1924. It is a useful method for the removal of O-acetyl protecting groups of carbohydrates, and it is performed by treating the O-acetylated substrates with a catalytic amount of sodium methoxide in methanol at room temperature. … Read more

Zelinsky-Stadnikoff reaction

What is Zelinsky-Stadnikoff reaction? The Zelinsky-Stadnikoff reaction was initially documented by Zelinsky and Stadnikoff in 1906. It is a variation of the Strecker Synthesis, wherein an aldehyde undergoes treatment with an aqueous mixture of alkali cyanide and ammonium chloride to produce the α-amino nitrile. This reaction is also referred to as the Strecker-Zelinsky-Stadnikoff cyanohydrin synthesis, … Read more

Zeisel determination

What is Zeisel determination? The Zeisel reaction, discovered by Zeisel in 1885, is a quantitative method for determining the number of alkyl groups attached to the oxygen atom of an ether or ester. This is accomplished by heating a mixture of the substrate with hydriodic acid and trapping the evolving alkyl iodide with silver nitrate. … Read more

Yamaguchi esterification

What is Yamaguchi esterification? The Yamaguchi esterification, also known as the Yamaguchi lactonization or Yamaguchi macrocyclization, is a regioselective synthesis of highly functionalized esters from carboxylic acids and alcohols using 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride as the condensation reagent and a stoichiometric amount of 4-N,N-dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP). R, R’ = alkyl, aryl (see list of acronyms) The Yamaguchi … Read more