Synthesis of haloalkanes

On an industrial scale Mainly chlorides, they are generally prepared by direct halogenation of hydrocarbons at high temperatures, by means of free radicals. Although most of the time mixtures containing isomers and varying amounts of halogen are obtained. However, industrially they are useful, since these mixtures can be used as such. Many fluorides, industrially, are … Read more


What are alkenes? Alkenes are compounds that have at least one C=C double bond. They are also known as olefins. When there is only one double bond in the molecule, its general formula is CnH2n, and for each additional double bond, two hydrogens are subtracted from the formula. The carbons connected by a double bond … Read more


What are aldehydes? Aldehydes are organic compounds that have the functional group -CHO (formyl), a carbonyl group >C=O with a hydrogen. Applications Aldehydes are present in many natural products and are widely used for the manufacture of all kinds of chemical compounds. For example, they have applications in materials such as plastics, perfumes, solvents, paints, … Read more

Carboxylic Acids

What are carboxylic acids? Carboxylic acids are compounds with the functional group -COOH (carboxyl group). Depending on the substituent to which it is attached, they are classified as aromatic or aliphatic. If they have more than one carboxyl group, they are called dicarboxylic acids (with two) or polycarboxylic acids (more than two). Acid-base properties Carboxylic … Read more


What are ketones? Ketones are organic compounds with the functional group >C=O (carbonyl group), with a general formula RC(=O)R’, where -R and -R’ can be different carbon substituents. The simplest is formaldehyde, with R and R’ = methyl and formula H3CC(O)CH3 (called ketone). Applications They are produced on a large scale in industry, e.g. as … Read more


What are haloalkanes? Haloalkanes (or alkyl halides) are derivatives of hydrocarbons in which one or more of the hydrogens have been replaced by halogens. Any of the hydrogens in a hydrocarbon can be replaced by halogen. In fact, all the hydrogens in a molecule can be replaced. For example, in fully fluorinated compounds, they are … Read more


What are alkanes? Alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons in the form of linear or branched chains with the general formula CnHn. Nomenclature of alkanes Follow the link for a summary of the formulation and nomenclature rules for alkanes, branched alkanes and cycloalkanes. Reactions of alkanes Compared to other functional groups, they are not very versatile in … Read more


What are alkynes? Alkynes are compounds that have at least one C≡C triple bond. When there is only one triple bond in the molecule its general formula is CnH2n-2. Formulation of alkynes Follow the link for a summary of the formulation and nomenclature rules for alkynes. Reactions of alkyne When studying the reactivity of alkynes … Read more


What are amines? Amines are compounds that have the functional group -NH2. They are usually classified according to the number of hydrogen atoms in the ammonia (NH3) that are substituted by other groups into primary (one substituent), secondary (two), tertiary (three) and quaternary (four substituents and a positive charge is added). Acid-base properties Amines are … Read more


What are alcohols? Alcohols are compounds presenting the -OH functional group. Acid-base properties Alcohols can behave as acids or bases. Many reactions in which they are involved are justified according to their acid-base properties. With strong acids they yield alkoxonium ions and with strong bases, alkoxides. Both are equilibrium processes. Bases such as Nao, metal … Read more